Friday, April 22, 2011

General of the Armies - George Washington

General of the Armies
George Washington

In office
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
Vice President John Adams
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by John Adams

In office
June 15, 1775 – December 23, 1783
Appointed by Continental Congress
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Henry Knox (US Army)

In office
July 13, 1798 – December 14, 1799
Appointed by John Adams
Preceded by James Wilkinson
Succeeded by Alexander Hamilton

In office
May 10, 1775 – June 15, 1775
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson

In office
September 5, 1774 – October 26, 1774
Preceded by None
Succeeded by None

Born February 22, 1732
Westmoreland County, Colony of Virginia
Died December 14, 1799 (aged 67)
Mount Vernon, Virginia
Resting place Washington family vault,
Mount Vernon
Nationality American
British subject (prior to 1776)
Political party None
Spouse(s) Martha Dandridge Custis Washington
Children none
Occupation Farmer (planter)
soldier (officer)
Religion Church of England / Episcopal
Signature Cursive signature in ink
Military service
Allegiance  Kingdom of Great Britain
 United States of America
Service/branch Virginia provincial militia
Continental Army
United States Army
Years of service militia: 1752–1758
Continental Army: 1775–1783
U. S. Army: 1798–1799
Rank US-O9 insignia.svg Lieutenant General
US-O12 insignia.svg General of the Armies of the United States (posthumously in 1976)
Commands Colony of Virginia's provincial regiment
Continental Army
United States Army
Battles/wars French and Indian War
American Revolutionary War
Awards Congressional Gold Medal, Thanks of Congress



George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775–1783, and he presided over the writing of the Constitution in 1787. As the unanimous choice to serve as the first President of the United States (1789–1797), he developed the forms and rituals of government that have been used ever since, such as using a cabinet system and delivering an inaugural address. As President, he built a strong, well-financed national government that stayed neutral in the wars raging in Europe, suppressed rebellion and won acceptance among Americans of all types, but also saw the advent of contentious political parties. Washington was universally regarded as the "Father of his country".

In Colonial Virginia, Washington was born into the provincial gentry in a wealthy, well connected family that owned tobacco plantations using slave labor. He was home schooled by his father and older brother, but both died young, and he became attached to the powerful Fairfax clan, who promoted his career as a surveyor and soldier. Strong, brave, eager for combat, and a natural leader, young Washington quickly became a senior officer of the colonial forces, 1754–58, during the first stages of the French and Indian War. Indeed, his rash actions helped precipitate the war. Washington's experience, his military bearing, his leadership of the Patriot cause in Virginia, and his political base in the largest colony made him the obvious choice of the Second Continental Congress in 1775 as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army to fight the British in the American Revolution. He forced the British out of Boston in 1776, but was defeated and nearly captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the dead of winter, he defeated the enemy in two battles, retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause. Because of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. Negotiating with Congress, governors, and French allies, he held together a tenuous army and a fragile nation amid the threats of disintegration and invasion. Historians give the commander in chief high marks for his selection and supervision of his generals, his encouragement of morale, his coordination with the state governors and state militia units, his relations with Congress, and his attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies. Washington is given full credit for the strategies that forced the British evacuation of Boston in 1776 and the surrender at Yorktown in 1781. After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned rather than seize power, and returned to his plantation at Mount Vernon, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to republican government.

Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that drafted the United States Constitution in 1787 because of his dissatisfaction with the weaknesses of Articles of Confederation that had time and again impeded the war effort. Washington became the first President of the United States in 1789. He attempted to bring rival factions together to unify the nation. He supported Alexander Hamilton's programs to pay off all state and national debt, implement an effective tax system, and create a national bank, despite opposition from Thomas Jefferson. Washington proclaimed the U.S. neutral in the wars raging in Europe after 1793. He avoided war with Britain and guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795, despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. Although never officially joining the Federalist Party, he supported its programs. Washington's "Farewell Address" was an influential primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars.

Washington had a vision of a great and powerful nation that would be built on republican lines using federal power. He sought to use the national government to improve the infrastructure, open the western lands, create a national university, promote commerce, found a capital city (later named Washington, D.C.), reduce regional tensions and promote a spirit of nationalism. "The name of American," he said, must override any local attachments.[1] At his death, Washington was hailed as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen".[2] The Federalists made him the symbol of their party but for many years, the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Washington Monument. As the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire in world history, Washington became an international icon for liberation and nationalism. His symbolism especially resonated in France and Latin America.[3] Historical scholars consistently rank him as one of the two or three greatest presidents.

Read More From
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington
http://www.history.com/topics/george-washington

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